More battles ensued, and Akbar fled to Persia and never returned. However these efforts brought him into conflict with the forces that were opposed to this revival.[68]. However, circumstances at the Mughal court were beyond the control of the Raja, and when Shivaji and his son Sambhaji went to Agra to meet Aurangzeb, they were placed under house arrest because of Shivaji's apparent misbehaviour, from which they managed to effect a daring escape. His successor Rajaram, later Rajaram's widow Tarabai and their Maratha forces fought individual battles against the forces of the Mughal Empire. Both Muslims and Hindus were forbidden to sing, play musical instruments, or to dance—a serious damper on the traditions of both faiths in India. On 4 July 1688, Raja Ram Jat was captured and beheaded. For the Indian movie of the same name, see, Emperor Aurangzeb seated on a throne in the, Early military campaigns and administration, Relations with the English and the Child's War, Regarding the tokenistic aspect of Shah Jahan's actions to strengthen Islam in his empire, Satish Chandra says, "We may conclude that Shah Jahan tried to effect a compromise. Aurangzeb in response moved his court to Aurangabad and took over command of the Deccan campaign. With these victories, Shivaji assumed de facto leadership of many independent Maratha clans. [49], Aurangzeb became viceroy of the Deccan again after he was replaced by Dara Shukoh in the attempt to recapture Kandahar. 'For you is your religion and for me is mine." Historian Audrey Truschke points out that BJP and other Hindu nationalists regard him as Muslim zealot. Aurangzeb military entourage consisted of 16 cannons including the Azdaha Paikar (which, was capable of firing a 33.5 kg ordnance)[110] and Fateh Rahber (20 feet long with Persian and Arabic inscriptions). Great Mosque of Aurungzeb and the adjoining Ghats. [citation needed], Aurangzeb received the embassy of Abbas II of Persia in 1660 and returned them with gifts. Near Varanasi his forces confronted a defending army sent from Delhi under the command of Prince Sulaiman Shukoh, son of Dara Shukoh, and Raja Jai Singh[60] while Murad did the same in his governorship of Gujarat and Aurangzeb did so in the Deccan. "[206], Beyond the individual appreciations, Aurangzeb is seminal to Pakistan's national self-consciousness, as historian Ayesha Jalal, while referring to the Pakistani textbooks controversy, mentions M. D. Zafar's A Text Book of Pakistan Studies where we can read that, under Aurangzeb, "Pakistan spirit gathered in strength", while his death "weakened the Pakistan spirit. Although they were displeased with his policies, they did not abandon Aurangzeb during his lifetime, but they revolted against his son as soon as the emperor died. [42] In 1637, Aurangzeb married the Safavid princess Dilras Banu Begum, posthumously known as Rabia-ud-Daurani. Aurangzeb would not languish in Agra for long, though; that same year, he was sent south to govern the Deccan once more. [131] The Privy Council and East India Company offered a massive bounty for Every's apprehension, leading to the first worldwide manhunt in recorded history. [111] François Bernier, the personal physician to Aurangzeb, observed versatile Mughal gun-carriages each drawn by two horses. [24], Aurangzeb has been subject to criticism. Dara had also become over-confident in his own abilities and, by ignoring advice not to lead in battle while his father was alive, he cemented the idea that he had usurped the throne. The Mughals could not make any advancements upon Bijapur Fort,[107] mainly because of the superior usage of cannon batteries on both sides. This attack provoked a reprisal, which triggered a general revolt of most of tribes. Seventeenth-century Badshahi Masjid built by Aurangzeb in Lahore. Dara fled north but was betrayed by a Baluchi chieftain and brought back to Agra in June 1659. Certainly, the lack of a specified line of succession did not make family life particularly easy. The army sent against Shuja was trapped in the east, its generals Jai Singh and Dilir Khan submitted to Aurangzeb, but Dara's son, Suleiman Shikoh, escaped. 200,000. Shah Jahan lived there for eight years, until 1666. Aurangzeb sent diplomatic missions to Mecca in 1659 and 1662, with money and gifts for the Sharif. [150][151][152][153] Aurangzeb appointed Mohammad Bidar Bakht as commander to crush the Jat rebellion. Ian Copland says that he built more temples than he destroyed. [93] Aurangzeb had his allied brother Prince Murad Baksh held for murder, judged and then executed. The campaign was successful and Singh was removed from power. Ou-k’ong or Wu-k’ung, a well-known Chinese pilgrim, who followed in the footsteps of Hsuan Tsang, reached Kashmir in 759 AD and spent no less than four years engaged in the study of Sanskrit, and in pilgrimages to sacred Jinnah, the founder of Pakistan, to be the greatest Muslim since Aurangzeb. She later inspired Shah Jahan to build the Taj Mahal. [126] The Sultan urged Aurangzeb to wage holy war against Christians. [61], Aurangzeb's imperial bureaucracy employed significantly more Hindus than that of his predecessors. Says Uttar Pradesh CM Yogi Adityanath The Uttar Pradesh Firebrand CM who is known for his Steaming “Straight forward” talks did it again and attacked the… Other weapons used during the period included rockets, cauldrons of boiling oil, muskets and manjaniqs (stone-throwing catapults). Historian Katherine Brown has argued that Aurangzeb never imposed a complete ban on music. In the 1660s, the Sultan of the Maldives, Ibrahim Iskandar I, requested help from Aurangzeb's representative, the Faujdar of Balasore. [36] In June 1626, after an unsuccessful rebellion by his father, Aurangzeb and his brother Dara Shukoh were kept as hostages under their grandparents' (Nur Jahan and Jahangir) Lahore court. Biography of Akbar the Great, Emperor of Mughal India, Biography of Babur, Founder of the Mughal Empire, List of Indian States and Union Territories, Biography of Tamerlane, 14th Century Conqueror of Asia, Early Muslim Rule in India From 1206 to 1398 CE, The Great Aurangzeb Is Everybody's Least Favourite Mughal, J.D., University of Washington School of Law, B.A., History, Western Washington University. [76] Aurangzeb also ordered subahdars to punish Muslims who dressed like non-Muslims. The Satnamis were known to have shaved off their heads and even eyebrows and had temples in many regions of Northern India. from 24 provinces. This was largely due to a substantial influx of Marathas, who played a key role in his successful Deccan campaign. He said, “Guru Tegh Bahadur asked them to tell him Abul Muzaffar Muhi-ud-Din Muhammad Aurangzeb (14 October 1618 – 20 February 1707), commonly known as Aurangzeb Alamgir and by his imperial title Alamgir ("world-seizer" or "universe-seizer") and simply referred to as Aurangzeb was the sixth Mughal Emperor and ruled over most of the Indian subcontinent during some parts of his reign. Perhaps Aurangzeb's early experiences of being held hostage by his grandfather and being constantly overlooked by his father warped the young prince's personality. Within weeks they occupied the capital of Kuch Behar, which they annexed. All errors and omissions are regretted. Aurangzeb received tribute from all over the Indian subcontinent, using this wealth to establish bases and fortifications in India, particularly in the Carnatic, Deccan, Bengal and Lahore. Shaista Khan, however, survived and was re-appointed the administrator of Bengal going on to become a key commander in the war against the Ahoms. [156] With this event, the Marathas transformed into a powerful military force, capturing more and more Adil Shahi territories. This rebellion would have a serious aftermath effect on the Punjab.[171]. "[204] Maulana Shabbir Ahmad Usmani, in his funeral oration, hailed M.A. I got 64 out of 70 But question no 30 mai mujhe glt dhekiya aur options bhi nahi diya… Zara koie bolo ess ka answer kay hai plzz Welcome to our site, jklatestinfo.com Here … ", هندوستان ميں فارسى تاريخ نگارى: ٧١ويں صدى كے آخرى نصف سے ٨١ويں صدى كے پهلے نصف تک فارسى تاريخ نگارى كا ارتقاء, Aurangzeb, as he was according to Mughal Records, The great Aurangzeb is everybody’s least favourite Mughal – Audrey Truschke | Aeon Essays, 2016 international conference on Sunni Islam in Grozny, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Aurangzeb&oldid=996474777, Short description is different from Wikidata, Wikipedia extended-confirmed-protected pages, All Wikipedia articles written in Indian English, Articles containing Persian-language text, Wikipedia articles needing page number citations from July 2020, Wikipedia articles needing clarification from February 2020, Articles with unsourced statements from October 2012, Articles with unsourced statements from June 2016, Vague or ambiguous geographic scope from July 2018, Articles with unsourced statements from June 2018, Wikipedia articles needing factual verification from January 2018, All articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases, Articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases from January 2018, Articles with unsourced statements from September 2012, Articles with unsourced statements from July 2020, Wikipedia articles needing page number citations from September 2012, Wikipedia articles needing page number citations from November 2020, Articles lacking reliable references from May 2019, Articles with unsourced statements from November 2018, Wikipedia articles needing clarification from April 2015, Articles containing Marathi-language text, Wikipedia articles with SELIBR identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SNAC-ID identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, गोंयची कोंकणी / Gõychi Konknni, Srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, In 1669, the Hindu Jat peasants of Bharatpur around, This page was last edited on 26 December 2020, at 20:48. Chhatrapati Shivaji was the champion of safronisation in Mughal Era, he never gave up the against the evil practices of Aurangzeb who is known as the most | MyVoice | OpIndia | ऑपइ ड य Unlike his predecessors, including his father Shah Jahan, Aurangzeb considered the royal treasury to be held in trust for the citizens of his empire. By the end of this two-year campaign, into which Aurangzeb had been plunged at a late stage, a vast sum of money had been expended for little gain. According to Sikh sources, approached by Kashmiri Pandits to help them retain their faith and avoid forced religious conversions, Guru Tegh Bahadur took on Aurangzeb. Aurangzeb also ordered the destruction of Hindu temples, although the exact number is not known. [99], In the year 1689, according to Mughal accounts, Sambhaji was put on trial, found guilty of atrocities[100] and executed. Shah Shuja, who had declared himself emperor in Bengal began to annex more territory and this prompted Aurangzeb to march from Punjab with a new and large army that fought during the Battle of Khajwa, where Shah Shuja and his chain-mail armoured war elephants were routed by the forces loyal to Aurangzeb. Being religious he encouraged Islamic calligraphy. and later on the same campaign Aurangzeb, in turn, rode against an army consisting 8,000 horsemen and 20,000 Karnataka musketeers. Aurangzeb and a brother were sent to their grandfather's court as hostages. Aurangzeb also ordered a rescue raid on a temple, in order to rescue a Rajasthan minister's female family members who went there on a pilgrimage. Aurangzeb defeats his brothers, Murad and Shuja and eventually crowns himself as the emperor. However, as Aurangzeb did not possess a powerful navy and had no interest in providing support to Ibrahim in a possible future war with the Dutch or English, the request came to nothing. [135] He had an annual yearly revenue of $450 million, more than ten times that of his contemporary Louis XIV of France. Shahanshah-e-Sultanat-ul-Hindiya Wal Mughaliya. Later in 1658 as the combined armies of Murad and Aurangzeb moved north toward the capital, Shah Jahan recovered his health. Switching to diplomacy and bribery along with force of arms, the Mughals eventually split the rebels and partially suppressed the revolt, although they never managed to wield effective authority outside the main trade route. On March 3, 1707, the 88-year-old Aurangzeb died in central India. 17, 1993 [58], In 1656, a general under Qutb Shahi dynasty named Musa Khan led an army of 12,000 musketeers to attack Aurangzeb,[where?] [citation needed], The Battle of Saraighat was the last battle in the last major attempt by the Mughals to extend their empire into Assam. [55] There were ideological differences â€” Dara was an intellectual and a religious liberal in the mould of Akbar, while Aurangzeb was much more conservative â€” but, as historians Barbara D. Metcalf and Thomas R. Metcalf say, "To focus on divergent philosophies neglects the fact that Dara was a poor general and leader. [52] Again, he was to feel that Dara had exerted influence on his father: believing that he was on the verge of victory in both instances, Aurangzeb was frustrated that Shah Jahan chose then to settle for negotiations with the opposing forces rather than pushing for complete victory. In 1658, Aurangzeb arranged his formal coronation in Delhi. [164], Aurangzeb's shift from conventional warfare to anti-insurgency in the Deccan region shifted the paradigm of Mughal military thought. Aurangzeb disavowed any plans to rule himself, claiming that his only ambition was to make the hajj to Mecca. At the same time, however, he greatly expanded the Mughal empire and was described by his contemporaries as being disciplined, pious, and intelligent. The closure of the important Attock-Kabul trade route along the Grand Trunk road was particularly disastrous. Print. The latter had formerly been a companion to Dara Shukoh. However, relations between the Mughal Empire and the Safavid dynasty were tense because the Persians attacked the Mughal army positioned near Kandahar. Shuja also fled to Arakan (Burma) and was executed there. The Kiladar (governor or captain) of the fortified city, Sidi Marjan, was mortally wounded when a gunpowder magazine exploded. The emperor perceived the rising popularity of the Guru as a threat to his sovereignty and in 1670 had him executed,[172] which infuriated the Sikhs. [citation needed], Only one remaining ruler, Abul Hasan Qutb Shah (the Qutbshahi ruler of Golconda), refused to surrender. [50], The four sons of Shah Jahan all held governorships during their father's reign. As there was no central authority among the Marathas, Aurangzeb was forced to contest every inch of territory, at great cost in lives and money. [157] Shivaji went on to neutralise Mughal power in the region. [9][211], Aurangzeb has prominently featured in the following books, This article is about the Mughal emperor. But in a daring raid on the governor's palace in Pune during a midnight wedding celebration, led by Shivaji himself, the Marathas killed Shaista Khan's son and Shivaji maimed Shaista Khan by cutting off three fingers of his hand. To make matters worse, the empire became over-extended and Aurangzeb imposed ever higher taxes in order to pay for his wars. [186] However, his constant warfare, especially with the Marathas, drove his empire to the brink of bankruptcy just as much as the wasteful personal spending and opulence of his predecessors.[187]. [162], In 1689, Aurangzeb's forces captured and executed Sambhaji. [183] Jos Gommans, Professor of Colonial and Global History at the University of Leiden,[184] says that "... the highpoint of imperial centralisation under emperor Aurangzeb coincided with the start of the imperial downfall. While Aurangzeb and his brother Shah Shuja had been fighting against each other, the Hindu rulers of Kuch Behar and Assam took advantage of the disturbed conditions in the Mughal Empire, had invaded imperial dominions. He further writes how "Artisans manufacture of silk, fine brocade, and other fine muslins, of which are made turbans, robes of gold flowers, and tunics worn by females, so delicately fine as to wear out in one night, and cost even more if they were well embroidered with fine needlework". When Dara's disparate, hastily concocted army clashed with Aurangzeb's well-disciplined, battle-hardened force at the Battle of Samugarh in late May, neither Dara's men nor his generalship were any match for Aurangzeb. Even when ill and dying, Aurangzeb made sure that the populace knew he was still alive, for if they had thought otherwise then the turmoil of another war of succession was likely. [29][30] Some historians question the historicity of the claims of his critics, arguing that his destruction of temples has been exaggerated,[31][32] and noting that he also built temples,[33] paid for their maintenance,[34][page needed] employed significantly more Hindus in his imperial bureaucracy than his predecessors did, and opposed bigotry against Hindus and Shia Muslims.[35]. Aurangzeb craftily recruited his younger brother Murad, convincing him that together they could remove Dara and Shuja and place Murad on the throne. [74] He sought to codify Hanafi law by the work of several hundred jurists, called Fatawa-e-Alamgiri. [13] During his lifetime, victories in the south expanded the Mughal Empire to 4 million square kilometres,[14] and he ruled over a population estimated to be over 158 million subjects,[13] Under his reign, India surpassed Qing China to become the world's largest economy and biggest manufacturing power, worth nearly a quarter of global GDP and more than the entirety of Western Europe, and its largest and wealthiest subdivision, the Bengal Subah,[15] signaled the proto-industrialization. The Deccan returned to prosperity,[41][51], Aurangzeb proposed to resolve the situation by attacking the dynastic occupants of Golconda (the Qutb Shahis) and Bijapur (the Adil Shahis). Although much weaker, the Ahom Army defeated the Mughal Army by brilliant uses of the terrain, clever diplomatic negotiations to buy time, guerrilla tactics, psychological warfare, military intelligence and by exploiting the sole weakness of the Mughal forces—its navy. The structure of Bibi Ka Maqbara in Aurangabad, which now is a historical monument was constructed by the sons of Aurangzeb in remembrance of their mother. Murad was executed on 4 December 1661, ostensibly for the murder of the diwan of Gujarat sometime earlier. CHAPTER FIVE The Mughals (1585-1753 A.D.) The ruthless Chaks had to face organised opposition on part of the Sunni Muslims, who rallied behind Sheikh Yaqub Sarfi, the political adviser of Sheikh Hamza Makhdom, known as a saint of Kashmir. Shah Jahan favored the eldest son Dara, but many Muslims considered him too worldly and irreligious. There was no Mughal tradition of primogeniture, the systematic passing of rule, upon an emperor's death, to his eldest son. Although the Mughals under the command of Syed Firoz Khan the Faujdar at Guwahati were overrun by two Ahom armies in 1667, but they continued to hold and maintain presence in their eastern territories even after the Battle of Saraighat in 1671. The main gates of Golconda had the ability to repulse any war elephant attack. Francois Bernier provided some of the first, impressive descriptions of the designs and the soft, delicate texture of Pashmina shawls also known as Kani, which were very valued for their warmth and comfort among the Mughals, and how these textiles and shawls eventually began to find their way to France and England.[121]. If the (elephant) fight had ended fatally for me, it would not have been a matter of shame. The Marathas also expanded further South into Southern India defeating the independent local rulers there capturing Jinji in Tamil Nadu. Sohoni, P., 2016. Mughal Empire MCQ Questions and answers with easy explanations. Thereafter, Shah Jahan appointed him governor of Gujarat where he served well and was rewarded for bringing stability. He is commonly considered the last of By 1674, the situation had deteriorated to a point where Aurangzeb camped at Attock to personally take charge. From Wahhabi indoctrination to rabble-rousing speeches of the religious leaders and clergy are the reasons for radicalisation of the youth. He ordered to dismiss Hindu quanungos and patwaris from revenue administration. [159][page needed], Shivaji returned to the Deccan, and crowned himself Chhatrapati or the ruler of the Maratha Kingdom in 1674. Shah Jahan was cared for by Jahanara and died in 1666. Sir Harry Hamilton Johnston, Leslie Haden Guest, 1937, Sarkar, J. N. (1992), "Chapter VIII Assam-Mughal Relations", in Barpujari, H. K., The Comprehensive History of Assam 2, Guwahati: Assam Publication Board, pp. The inspiration came from Taj mahal as is quite visible from its architecture.[119]. During the eight-month siege the Mughals faced many hardships including the death of their experienced commander Kilich Khan Bahadur. "[202], Muhammad Iqbal, considered the spiritual founder of Pakistan, compared him favorably to the prophet Abraham for his warfare against Akbar's Din-i Ilahi and idolatry,[203] while Iqbal Singh Sevea, in his book on the political philosophy of the thinker, says that "Iqbal considered that the life and activities of Aurangzeb constituted the starting point of Muslim nationality in India. Aurangabad, Maharashtra expresses his deep devotion to his Islamic beliefs number is not known Tamil. In 1645, he was executed by the Mughals faced many hardships including the death of Jahan... Combined armies of Murad and Aurangzeb said: [ 38 ] [ 153 ] advanced. Capturing Jinji in Tamil Nadu to have shaved off their heads and even eyebrows and had temples in regions... 1699 led to the policies of his predecessors after his ascension Rhodes the... 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