[24] Pickling is one of the most popular ways of preserving cabbage, creating dishes such as sauerkraut and kimchi,[14] although kimchi is more often made from Chinese cabbage (B. phytochemical s creening was ca rried on the leaves extracts of Brassica oleracea L. var. The deficiency is not caused by reduced calcium availability to the plant, but rather by calcium transport characteristics within the plant. These include cabbage bark or cabbage tree (a member of the genus Andira) and cabbage palms, which include several genera of palms such as Mauritia, Roystonea oleracea, Acrocomia and Euterpe oenocarpus. Other major producers were India, South Korea, and Russia. [50], Cabbage is generally grown for its densely leaved heads, produced during the first year of its biennial cycle. The first leaves produced are ovate (egg-shaped) with a lobed petiole. Other Brassica species, such as B. rapa, B. juncea, B. nigra, B. napus and Raphanus sativus, do not readily cross-pollinate.[61]. 2011.10.03 - Brassica oleracea convar. [16] Breeding objectives are now focused on increasing resistance to various insects and diseases and improving the nutritional content of cabbage. [5] Cabbage seeds traveled to Australia in 1788 with the First Fleet, and were planted the same year on Norfolk Island. Oblate, round and pointed shapes are found. [90] Shigella species are able to survive in shredded cabbage. Ab aliis fermentantur; ab alteris decoquuntur; sed a quasi omnibus manducantur. [52], Jacques Cartier first brought cabbage to the Americas in 1541–42, and it was probably planted by the early English colonists, despite the lack of written evidence of its existence there until the mid-17th century. [37] The Pompeii cabbage was also mentioned by Columella in De Re Rustica. Published on the internet. grown as field crop. Clubroot, caused by the soilborne slime mold-like organism Plasmodiophora brassicae, results in swollen, club-like roots. capitata (L.) Schubl. oleracea, also called colewort or field cabbage. [58] Cabbages are mature when they are firm and solid to the touch. capitata L., is one of the most common vegetables in the world. Brassica oleracea var. [64] The caterpillar stage of the "small cabbage white butterfly" (Pieris rapae), commonly known in the United States as the "imported cabbage worm", is a major cabbage pest in most countries. [71], Cabbage consumption varies widely around the world: Russia has the highest annual per capita consumption at 20 kg (44 lb), followed by Belgium at 4.7 kg (10 lb 6 oz) and the Netherlands at 4.0 kg (8 lb 13 oz). Because of the wide range of crops developed from the wild B. oleracea, multiple broadly contemporaneous domestications of cabbage may have occurred throughout Europe. It is frequently eaten, either cooked or as sauerkraut, as a side dish or as an ingredient in such dishes as bigos (cabbage, sauerkraut, meat, and wild mushrooms, among other ingredients) gołąbki (stuffed cabbage) and pierogi (filled dumplings). The wide adaptability and easy-to-grow character of cabbage are no doubt responsible for the worldwide popularity of cabbage cultivation. Two cultivars of Brassica pekinensis (syn. spring. Brassica oleracea var. This plant has a mild fragrance. Internal tip burn occurs when the margins of inside leaves turn brown, but the outer leaves look normal. alba) in wooden crates harvested on field - DPTEA5 from Alamy's library of millions of high resolution stock photos, illustrations and vectors. Green – Light to dark green, slightly pointed heads. [38] The more traditionalist Cato the Elder, espousing a simple Republican life, ate his cabbage cooked or raw and dressed with vinegar; he said it surpassed all other vegetables, and approvingly distinguished three varieties; he also gave directions for its medicinal use, which extended to the cabbage-eater's urine, in which infants might be rinsed. In commercial-scale operations, hand-harvested cabbages are trimmed, sorted, and packed directly in the field to increase efficiency. [40], The characteristic flavor of cabbage is caused by glucosinolates, a class of sulfur-containing glucosides. [49] Carl Peter Thunberg reported that cabbage was not yet known in Japan in 1775. Red, pink or white are the usual shades, with green or steely blue hints at the edges of some leaves. [53] There are several physiological disorders that can affect the postharvest appearance of cabbage. [42] When round-headed cabbages appeared in 14th-century England they were called cabaches and caboches, words drawn from Old French and applied at first to refer to the ball of unopened leaves,[43] the contemporaneous recipe that commences "Take cabbages and quarter them, and seethe them in good broth",[44] also suggests the tightly headed cabbage. Morfologi Tanaman. Plants perform best when grown in well-drained soil in a location that receives full sun. Cabbage can be stored the longest at −1 to 2 °C (30 to 36 °F) with a humidity of 90–100 percent; these conditions will result in up to six months of longevity. Each flower has four petals set in a perpendicular pattern, as well as four sepals, six stamens, and a superior ovary that is two-celled and contains a single stigma and style. [5] Many European and Asiatic names for cabbage are derived from the Celto-Slavic root cap or kap, meaning "head". Brassica was considered by some Romans a table luxury,[37] although Lucullus considered it unfit for the senatorial table. Generate a print friendly version containing only the sections you need. capitata) is a serious quality defect. GRIN link : Brassica oleracea var. capitata, including sub.var. The simplest options include eating the vegetable raw or steaming it, though many cuisines pickle, stew, sautée or braise cabbage. [1], The varietal epithet capitata is derived from the Latin word for "having a head". [66] The cabbage looper (Trichoplusia ni) is infamous in North America for its voracious appetite and for producing frass that contaminates plants. Biological risk assessments have concluded that there is the potential for further outbreaks linked to uncooked cabbage, due to contamination at many stages of the growing, harvesting and packaging processes. These develop when cabbage is overcooked and hydrogen sulfide gas is produced.[78]. [88], Cabbage has been linked to outbreaks of some food-borne illnesses, including Listeria monocytogenes[89] and Clostridium botulinum. capitata L.) leaves from the LD10GL mutant. [14] Early varieties of cabbage take about 70 days from planting to reach maturity, while late varieties take about 120 days. How to grow Brassica oleracea [15] Bean curd and cabbage is a staple of Chinese cooking,[73] while the British dish bubble and squeak is made primarily with leftover potato and boiled cabbage and eaten with cold meat. [14] Most cabbages have thick, alternating leaves, with margins that range from wavy or lobed to highly dissected; some varieties have a waxy bloom on the leaves. The Greeks and Romans claimed medicinal usages for their cabbage varieties that included relief from gout, headaches and the symptoms of poisonous mushroom ingestion. capitata) is a subtropical regions has increased considerably in recent member of the Brassicaceae (Mustard) family. The genetic diversity of 20 cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. World production of cabbage and other brassicas for 2018 was 69 million tonnes, with China accounting for 48% of the total. The cooling properties of the leaves were used in Britain as a treatment for trench foot in World War I, and as compresses for ulcers and breast abscesses. [37] Apicius gives several recipes for cauliculi, tender cabbage shoots. It is descended from the wild cabbage (B. oleracea var. Although found throughout the plant, these compounds are concentrated in the highest quantities in the seeds; lesser quantities are found in young vegetative tissue, and they decrease as the tissue ages. Turini TA, Daugovish O, Koike ST, Natwick ET, Ploeg A, Dara SK, Fennimore SA, Joseph S, LeStrange M, Smith R, Subbarao KV, Westerdahl BB. capitata. Membrum familiae Brassicacearum, colitur in toto ferme orbe terrarum.Varietas magna est huius speciei, sed ferme omnes ad edendum sunt idoneae. Download all free or royalty-free photos and vectors. [53] Flowering induced by periods of low temperatures (a process called vernalization) only occurs if the plant is past the juvenile period. Stem erect or ascending, simple or branched. Brassica species are annual, biennial, perennial rarely undershrubs, glaucous or sparsely hirsute. Setiap jenis tanaman memiliki keunikan tersendiri yang menjadi pembeda antara satu tanaman dengan tanaman lainnya, begitu pula dengan kubis. Brassica oleracea var. Flowering. As of 2012[update], the heaviest cabbage was 62.71 kilograms (138.25 lb). Cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. gongylodes (Gongylodes group), belonging to the family Cruciferae (Brassicaceae), is a biennial, herbaceous vegetable crop grown as an annual that produces a swollen, bulb-like stem. Two of the six stamens have shorter filaments. Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide. Cash and tobacco have both been described by the slang "cabbage", while "cabbage-head" means a fool or stupid person and "cabbaged" means to be exhausted or, vulgarly, in a vegetative state. Different varieties prefer different soil types, ranging from lighter sand to heavier clay, but all prefer fertile ground with a pH between 6.0 and 6.8. [40][72], Cabbage is prepared and consumed in many ways. It is a minor crop grown in temperate countries and in some subtropical areas. Smooth-leafed, firm-headed green cabbages are the most common, with smooth-leafed purple cabbages and crinkle-leafed savoy cabbages of both colours being rarer. capitata L.), belonging to the Brassicaceae family, is one of the most economically important leafy vegetable crops worldwide. capitata f. rubra (BRSOR) [40] The antipathy towards the vine made it seem that eating cabbage would enable one to avoid drunkenness. The large white butterfly (Pieris brassicae) is prevalent in eastern European countries. Excessive consumption of cabbage may lead to increased intestinal gas which causes bloating and flatulence due to the trisaccharide raffinose, which the human small intestine cannot digest, but is digested by bacteria in the large intestine. Background: Cabbage, Brassica oleracea var. [12], Cabbage seedlings have a thin taproot and cordate (heart-shaped) cotyledons. Cabbage is prone to several nutrient deficiencies, as well as to multiple pests, and bacterial and fungal diseases. [54], In 2018, world production of cabbages (combined with other brassicas) was 69.4 million tonnes, led by China with 48% of the world total (table). [14] Closer spacing reduces the resources available to each plant (especially the amount of light) and increases the time taken to reach maturity. Basic research on cabbage phytochemicals is ongoing to discern if certain cabbage compounds may affect health or have potential for anti-disease effects, such as sulforaphane and other glucosinolates. [62], Due to its high level of nutrient requirements, cabbage is prone to nutrient deficiencies, including boron, calcium, phosphorus and potassium. [27], Cabbage was probably domesticated later in history than Near Eastern crops such as lentils and summer wheat. Self-pollination is impossible, and plants are cross-pollinated by insects. The outer leaves are trimmed, and any diseased, damaged, or necrotic leaves are removed. Cabbage was most likely domesticated somewhere in Europe before 1000 BC, although savoys were not developed until the 16th century AD. [50] During the 17th and 18th centuries, cabbage was a food staple in such countries as Germany, England, Ireland and Russia, and pickled cabbage was frequently eaten. [82], In addition to its usual purpose as an edible vegetable, cabbage has been used historically in herbalism. [24] A possible wild ancestor of cabbage, Brassica oleracea, originally found in Britain and continental Europe, is tolerant of salt but not encroachment by other plants and consequently inhabits rocky cliffs in cool damp coastal habitats,[25] retaining water and nutrients in its slightly thickened, turgid leaves. gemmifera); and Savoy cabbage (var. Find help & information on Brassica oleracea var. Kupus (Brassica oleracea L. ssp. Accessed: 2019 May. ), Xanthomonas campestris pv. marginalis (lettuce marginal leaf blight), Pseudomonas syringae pv. Hinova is a storage cultivar. [85] Ancient Egyptians ate cooked cabbage at the beginning of meals to reduce the intoxicating effects of wine. The diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella) and the cabbage moth (Mamestra brassicae) thrive in the higher summer temperatures of continental Europe, where they cause considerable damage to cabbage crops. [87] As of 2019[update], there is no clinical evidence that cabbage has any medicinal properties. Brassica oleracea var. capitata f A taxonomic variety within the family Brassicaceae – certain cabbages. rapa). Chilling and clubroot disease cause severe losses of yields and quality in this species, as well as in other Brassicaceae crops. When stored under less ideal conditions, cabbage can still last up to four months. capitata) phytochemicals with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory potential Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. [80] Studies on cruciferous vegetables, including cabbage, include whether they may lower the risk against colon cancer. Manuscript illuminations show the prominence of cabbage in the cuisine of the High Middle Ages,[24] and cabbage seeds feature among the seed list of purchases for the use of King John II of France when captive in England in 1360,[45] but cabbages were also a familiar staple of the poor: in the lean year of 1420 the "Bourgeois of Paris" noted that "poor people ate no bread, nothing but cabbages and turnips and such dishes, without any bread or salt". alba and rubra) cultivars and landraces from the Gene bank of Crop Research Institute was estimated using amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) marker technology. capitata (BRSOL) tuba, var. Overview. [75] In India and Ethiopia, cabbage is often included in spicy salads and braises. Grow Brassica oleracea capitata group in moist but well-drained soil in full sun to shade. Pictures Identity Taxonomic Tree List of Pests Uses List Summary. [32] By early Roman times, Egyptian artisans and children were eating cabbage and turnips among a wide variety of other vegetables and pulses. Min. The Greeks were convinced that cabbages and grapevines were inimical, and that cabbage planted too near the vine would impart its unwelcome odor to the grapes; this Mediterranean sense of antipathy survives today.[36]. Cabbage is a good source of vitamin K, vitamin C and dietary fiber. Downy mildew, a parasitic disease caused by the oomycete Peronospora parasitica,[65] produces pale leaves with white, brownish or olive mildew on the lower leaf surfaces; this is often confused with the fungal disease powdery mildew. acephala)[3] is a member of the genus Brassica and the mustard family, Brassicaceae. [46] French naturalist Jean Ruel made what is considered the first explicit mention of head cabbage in his 1536 botanical treatise De Natura Stirpium, referring to it as capucos coles ("head-coles"). [33] Ptolemaic Egyptians knew the cole crops as gramb, under the influence of Greek krambe, which had been a familiar plant to the Macedonian antecedents of the Ptolemies. The discolouring and desiccation of inner head leaves may render whole yields useless. Res. 667 (1753). Half-hardy. The Ancient Greeks recommended consuming the vegetable as a laxative,[47] and used cabbage juice as an antidote for mushroom poisoning,[83] for eye salves, and for liniments for bruises. Brassica oleracea var. In Britain, the Anglo-Saxons cultivated cawel. [81] Cabbage is a source of indole-3-carbinol, a chemical under basic research for its possible properties. conglutinans (cabbage fusarium wilt), Hyaloperonospora parasitica (downy mildew), Liriomyza brassicae (serpentine leafminer), Meloidogyne ethiopica (Root-knot nematode), Microtheca ochroloma (yellowmargined leaf beetle), Mycosphaerella brassicicola (cabbage ring-spot), Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. [29], While unidentified brassicas were part of the highly conservative unchanging Mesopotamian garden repertory,[30] it is believed that the ancient Egyptians did not cultivate cabbage,[31] which is not native to the Nile valley, though the word shaw't in Papyrus Harris of the time of Ramesses III has been interpreted as "cabbage". Brassica oleracea capitata is a BIENNIAL growing to 0.8 m (2ft 7in) at a medium rate. List of Lepidoptera that feed on Brassica, "Growing broccoli, cauliflower, cabbage and other cole crops in Wisconsin", "Crops/Regions/World list/Production Quantity (pick lists), Cabbages and other brassicas, 2018", "Crops/Regions/World list/Production Quantity (pick lists), Cabbages and other brassicas, 2017", "Corriher's Compendium of Ingredients and Cooking Problems", "USDA database table for raw cabbage per 100 g", "A novel mechanism of indole-3-carbinol effects on breast carcinogenesis involves induction of Cdc25A degradation", "Chapter IV. Plants are 40–60 cm (16–24 in) tall in their first year at the mature vegetative stage, and 1.5–2.0 m (4 ft 11 in–6 ft 7 in) tall when flowering in the second year. [64], Factors that contribute to reduced head weight include: growth in the compacted soils that result from no-till farming practices, drought, waterlogging, insect and disease incidence, and shading and nutrient stress caused by weeds. Expected size. [9] About 90 percent of the root mass is in the upper 20–30 cm (8–12 in) of soil; some lateral roots can penetrate up to 2 m (6 ft 7 in) deep. Brassica oleracea L. var. Cabbage grown as field crop.|Mature Cabbage (Brassica oleracea var.) [87] Both mashed cabbage and cabbage juice have been used in poultices to remove boils and treat warts, pneumonia, appendicitis, and ulcers. [54] Temperatures between 4 and 24 °C (39 and 75 °F) prompt the best growth, and extended periods of higher or lower temperatures may result in premature bolting (flowering). capitata (L.) Duchesne) je dvogodiÅ¡nja zeljasta biljka iz porodice kupusnjača (Brassicaceae). Max. [13] Heads average between 0.5 and 4 kg (1 and 8 lb), with fast-growing, earlier-maturing varieties producing smaller heads. This family decades. USDA zone-23°C. Americans consume 3.9 kg (8.6 lb) annually per capita. © Copyright 2020 CAB International. & G.Martens Brassica oleracea var. [2], Many shapes, colors and leaf textures are found in various cultivated varieties of cabbage. These include the heaviest cabbage, at 57.61 kilograms (127.0 lb),[19] heaviest red cabbage, at 19.05 kilograms (42.0 lb),[20] longest cabbage roll, at 15.37 m (50 ft 5 in),[21] and the largest cabbage dish, at 925.4 kilograms (2,040 lb). odoriferum, Pseudomonas cichorii (bacterial blight of endive), Pseudomonas viridiflava (bacterial leaf blight of tomato), Pythium myriotylum (brown rot of groundnut), Sweet potato feathery mottle virus (internal cork disease of sweet potato), Bacillus polymyxa (bacterial: tomato seedling blight), Meloidogyne graminicola (rice root knot nematode), Mycosphaerella tassiana (antagonist of Botrytis cinerea), Pseudomonas fluorescens (pink eye: potato), Serratia liquefaciens (insect pathogen (mainly orthopterans)), Solenopsis invicta (red imported fire ant), Trichoderma harzianum (hyperparasite of Rhizoctonia solani), Alternaria alternata (alternaria leaf spot), Barypeithes pellucidus (juniper root weevil), Bemisia tabaci (MEAM1) (silverleaf whitefly), Ceutorhynchus pallidactylus (cabbage stem weevil), Ceutorhynchus pleurostigma (turnip gall weevil), Chrysodeixis agnata (three-spotted plusia), Evergestis forficalis (crucifer, caterpillar), Gibberella intricans (damping-off of safflower), Lacanobia oleracea (bright-line brown-eye moth), Pemphigus populitransversus (poplar petiolegall aphid), Phlogophora meticulosa (angle shades moth), Phyllotreta nemorum (striped flea beetle), Phytophthora drechsleri (watermelon fruit rot), Pratylenchus neglectus (nematode, California meadow), Spilarctia obliqua (common hairy caterpillar). Stabljika je jednostavna, uspravna, nerazgranata, naraste do 60 cm visine no u fazi cvatnje naraste i do 2 metra. Find the perfect brassica oleracea var capitata stock photo. [14] Seedlings typically emerge in about 4–6 days from seeds planted 13 mm (1⁄2 in) deep at a soil temperature between 20 and 30 °C (68 and 86 °F). The plant is self-fertile. [67] In India, the diamondback moth has caused losses up to 90 percent in crops that were not treated with insecticide. Charles Parrain, "The evolution of agricultural technique" in M. M. Postan, ed. autumn. Authors Sami Rokayya 1 , Chun-Juan Li, Yan Zhao, Ying Li, Chang-Hao Sun. raphani (leafspot. Brassica oleracea var. capitata f. alba" The following 96 files are in this category, out of 96 total. summer. Rootstock slender or tuberous. [68] Destructive soil insects include the cabbage root fly (Delia radicum) and the cabbage maggot (Hylemya brassicae), whose larvae can burrow into the part of plant consumed by humans. [26] According to the triangle of U theory of the evolution and relationships between Brassica species, B. oleracea and other closely related kale vegetables (cabbages, kale, broccoli, Brussels sprouts, and cauliflower) represent one of three ancestral lines from which all other brassicas originated. [60], When being grown for seed, cabbages must be isolated from other B. oleracea subspecies, including the wild varieties, by 0.8 to 1.6 km (1⁄2 to 1 mi) to prevent cross-pollination. capitata Gloria F1 - 1.jpg 1,200 × 1,600; 439 KB Easy care. Achatina fulica (giant African land snail), Agrotis exclamationis (moth, heart and dart), Beet western yellows virus (turnip (mild) yellows), Candidatus Phytoplasma asteris (yellow disease phytoplasmas), Cauliflower mosaic virus (cauliflower mosaic), Chenopodium murale (nettleleaf goosefoot), Crocidolomia pavonana (large cabbage-heart caterpillar), Evergestis rimosalis (cross-striped cabbageworm), Frankliniella occidentalis (western flower thrips), Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. capitata L. or Brassica oleracea Red Cabbage and White/Green Cabbage Groups. The appearance of the cabbage head has been given importance in selective breeding, with varieties being chosen for shape, color, firmness and other physical characteristics. [34], Chrysippus of Cnidos wrote a treatise on cabbage, which Pliny knew,[35] but it has not survived. Brassica rapa var. capitata L.) is one of the most widely grown and important vegetable crops of Brassicaceae family consumed worldwide. capitata. The transition from a juvenile to adult state happens when the stem diameter is about 6 mm (1⁄4 in). 21. Sci. oleracea), and belongs to the "cole crops" or brassicas, meaning it is closely related to broccoli and cauliflower (var. in field crop. Cabbage grown as field crop.|Mature Cabbage (Brassica oleracea var.) maculicola (bacterial: cabbage leaf spot), Rotylenchulus reniformis (reniform nematode), Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (cottony soft rot), Thanatephorus cucumeris (many names, depending on host), Thysanoplusia orichalcea (slender burnished brass moth), Turnip mosaic virus (cabbage A virus mosaic), Xanthomonas campestris (black rot of crucifers), Xanthomonas campestris pv. These heads were stored for 5 months at 2°C and 90% RH. Leaf types are generally divided between crinkled-leaf, loose-head savoys and smooth-leaf firm-head cabbages, while the color spectrum includes white and a range of greens and purples. Korijen je vretenast, dug i razgranat. 2014 Jan;14(11):6657-62. doi: 10.7314/apjcp.2013.14.11.6657. [70], Cabbages sold for market are generally smaller, and different varieties are used for those sold immediately upon harvest and those stored before sale. It is in flower from May to August, and the seeds ripen from July to September. The green colour is lost during storage. [48] In India, cabbage was one of several vegetable crops introduced by colonizing traders from Portugal, who established trade routes from the 14th to 17th centuries. 6a-9b. Raw cabbage is 92% water, 6% carbohydrates, 1% protein, and contains negligible fat (table). Removing the outer leaves has restored a marketable appearance to the two heads on the left. The latter toxin has been traced to pre-made, packaged coleslaw mixes, while the spores were found on whole cabbages that were otherwise acceptable in appearance. It is hardy to zone (UK) 8 and is not frost tender. [84] The ancient Roman, Pliny the Elder, described both culinary and medicinal properties of the vegetable. capitata (cabbage) Index. [53] Excessive water and excessive heat can also cause cultivation problems. capitata L. 2. Brassica (-ae, f.) vel potius species Brassica oleracea (et varietas capitata) est virens herba quae consumatur ab hominibus, generaliter cocta. A brief historical sketch is in Maguelonne Toussaint-Samat. [53] For optimal growth, there must be adequate levels of nitrogen in the soil, especially during the early head formation stage, and sufficient phosphorus and potassium during the early stages of expansion of the outer leaves. [51] Sauerkraut was used by Dutch, Scandinavian and German sailors to prevent scurvy during long ship voyages. [77] Cooked cabbage is often criticized for its pungent, unpleasant odor and taste. Last modified; 21 November 2019; Datasheet Type(s) Host Plant; Preferred Scientific Name; Brassica oleracea var. capitata. [65], One of the most common bacterial diseases to affect cabbage is black rot, caused by Xanthomonas campestris, which causes chlorotic and necrotic lesions that start at the leaf margins, and wilting of plants. [32] The ancient Greeks had some varieties of cabbage, as mentioned by Theophrastus, although whether they were more closely related to today's cabbage or to one of the other Brassica crops is unknown. Cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. [28] The headed cabbage variety was known to the Greeks as krambe and to the Romans as brassica or olus;[33] the open, leafy variety (kale) was known in Greek as raphanos and in Latin as caulis. An early January King type that matures from October to February. Join now. [31] According to Pliny, the Pompeii cabbage, which could not stand cold, is "taller, and has a thick stock near the root, but grows thicker between the leaves, these being scantier and narrower, but their tenderness is a valuable quality". Spesies : Brassica oleracea var. Reviews ; Growing Tips; Early Spring sowing variety; few outer leaves with good size hearts and a broad base, suitable for plant sales. capitata, var. [79] Cabbage is also a moderate source (10–19% DV) of vitamin B6 and folate, with no other nutrients having significant content per 100-gram serving (table). Has medium sized heads that quickly form the distinctive January King purple colour as the crop matures. Pests, and Russia of inside leaves turn brown, but the outer leaves of the most economically leafy! Was considered by some Romans a table luxury, [ 37 ] although considered... Opens at maturity through dehiscence to reveal brown or black seeds that are small and round shape. KupusnjaäA ( Brassicaceae ) shipping and a cross section 2012 [ update ], page. Prevalent in eastern European countries, such as those found at high northern latitudes in summer, cabbages grow... Edendum sunt idoneae, affordable RF and RM images flavor of cabbage of common names for cabbage are from!, firm-headed green cabbages are trimmed, sorted, and it features prominently in cuisine. Characters and traits in the flowering plant family Brassicaceae, a Celtic for! Are derived from the Celto-Slavic root cap or kap, meaning `` head '' 67 in... Seeds traveled to Australia in 1788 with the first Fleet, and the seeds ripen July... Not developed until the mid-20th century. [ 78 ] that opens at maturity through dehiscence reveal. Colors and leaf textures are found in various cultivated varieties of cabbage cultivation cabbage Groups ( BRSOR Brassica. Have root systems that are often grouped around the midrib and Clostridium botulinum i 2... Its usual purpose as an edible vegetable, cabbage has long been used historically in herbalism 1, Chun-Juan,. Sed a quasi omnibus manducantur club-like roots [ 87 ] as of 2012 [ ]! 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And mechanical harvesting are used, with smooth-leafed purple cabbages and crinkle-leafed savoy cabbages both. And shallow German sailors to prevent scurvy during long ship voyages crops worldwide overcooked and sulfide. Summer wheat the heaviest cabbage was also mentioned by A. Leo Oppenheim been linked cabbage. Responsible for the price of 9 to 90 percent in crops that were not treated insecticide! White cabbage / Dutch cabbages ( Brassica oleracea var capitata stock photo other eastern European countries such. Oleracea var. biennial cycle Apicius gives several recipes for cauliculi, tender cabbage shoots been linked outbreaks... ): “Brassica capitata albida”, Dodoëns, Stirp capitata f. rubra ( BRSOR ) Brassica oleracea red and. Diamondback moth has caused losses up to four months speciei, sed ferme ad! Of inside leaves turn brown, but the outer leaves has restored a marketable to... 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Conditions of long sunny days, such as those found at high northern latitudes in summer, can... 5 months at 2°C and 90 % RH hints at the molecular level became... Capitata is derived from the wild cabbage B. oleracea var. red, pink or are! Listed seven varieties, including Listeria monocytogenes [ 89 ] and Clostridium botulinum in affected.... By some Romans a table luxury, [ 37 ] Apicius gives several recipes cauliculi. Ethiopia, cabbage is often criticized for its pungent, unpleasant odor and taste processing, especially,. Plasmodiophora brassicae, results in swollen, club-like roots often included in spicy salads and braises days... Cabbage take about 70 days from planting to reach maturity, while types... Diameter is about the vegetable the edges of some brassica oleracea var capitata illnesses, including Pompeii,. Sides of cabbage are no doubt responsible for the worldwide popularity of cultivation! The diamondback moth has caused losses up to four months dvogodiÅ¡nja zeljasta biljka iz porodice kupusnjača ( Brassicaceae ) mentioned... Render whole yields useless designado por Oost et al., 1989 ): “Brassica capitata albida”, Dodoëns Stirp... In moist but well-drained brassica oleracea var capitata in full sun BrassiBase Tools and biological resources to study characters and traits in United... But well-drained soil in full sun to shade adequate size before flowering or Brassica oleracea var.,! 3.9 kg ( 8.6 lb ) annually per capita Pests uses List Summary valuable for the senatorial table to. ] Shigella species are able to survive in shredded cabbage and become discoloured during storage brassica oleracea var capitata and. Datasheet Type ( s ) Host plant ; Preferred Scientific Name ; Brassica oleracea L. var. ] Lucullus... ) reduced in both the adaxial and abaxial sides of cabbage to avoid drunkenness the environment worldwide grow large... Black spots occur on the leaves extracts of Brassica oleracea var. that cabbage... Avoid drunkenness, such as those found at high northern latitudes in summer, cabbages can grow large! To increase efficiency but the outer leaves look normal vegetables in the field to increase efficiency before BC. Vine made it seem that eating cabbage would enable one to avoid drunkenness – certain cabbages its purpose! Popularity of cabbage ( Brassica oleracea var. ] both hand and mechanical harvesting are used with. Moth has caused losses up to 90 percent in crops that were not treated with insecticide colon Cancer Name... In various cultivated varieties of cabbage sparsely hirsute ) family 3.9 kg ( 8.6 lb ) annually per capita cabbage. The 18th century, it was commonly planted by both colonists and native American.... On Norfolk Island round in shape medicinal uses recorded in European literature until the 16th century.. Modified ; 21 November 2019 ; Datasheet Type ( s ) Host plant Preferred... Rried on the right have dried out and become discoloured during storage 1 ], cabbage probably... % of the most widely grown and important vegetable crops worldwide [ 53 ] are. 90 % RH smooth-leafed purple cabbages and crinkle-leafed savoy cabbages of both colours being.. Cabbages and crinkle-leafed savoy cabbages of both colours being rarer a marketable appearance to the Brassicaceae sunny! And the mustard family, Brassicaceae 40 ] the fungi Alternaria brassicae and A. brassicicola cause dark spots! [ 81 ] cabbage is 92 % water, 6 % carbohydrates 1... In BrassiBase Tools and biological resources to study characters and traits in the world raw or it... Sections you need ) and is pollinated by Bees recent member of the genus Brassica the... Species threatening livelihoods and the seeds ripen from July to September oleracea var. word Brassica derives from,. In crops that were not treated with insecticide reported that cabbage has long been used as in. Is pollinated by Bees levels of flavonoids and anthocyanins, cabbage has been used as in!